Smoking gun part 2 chapter 1
Olaus Magnus, Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus
Olaus Magnus, born in Skenninge 1490 (d. 1557). During his younger ages he grow up in Linkoping, Ostergotland, Sweden. (East of Lake Vaettern). ‘
A quick translation from the latin text you may find at Olaus Magnus De fcorteis, feu coriariiis nauibus Gruntlandiæ, Cap. IX
‘In 1505 I saw two such leaderboats above the Eastern portal in the Oslo Cathedral, sanctified to Saint Halvord, where they were fastened on the wall for everyone to look at. It’s told that King Hakon[IEJ: son of King Magnus Eriksson] acquired them, when he with an armed battle fleet passed Greenland’s coast…’
From this 1505 observation and report presented to Olaus Magnus we learn that King Hakon sent a fleet, not single boats/ships passing Greenland’s coast. I have heard same story told from other sources which I don’t intend to refer here. Would anyone please give any good explination why an armed battle fleet with King Hakon on one of the boats should have sailed on a War Mission beyond Greenland if not to fight in NA? When the mission took place? From other sources I have learnt that it took place after 1368 and before King Hakon’s death 1380. Some hint that it was during the return after the War Mission that King Magnus Eriksson died when a ship turned over in high sea outside Bergen 1374.
As for Olaus Magnus lines no matter how interesting they are his brother John’s Carthographic works are even more interesting in the light of the Vinland Map discussion. But that’s a later story to be told
Description of the northern peoples, Rome 1555 : Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus, Romæ 1555/Olaus Magnus;
translated by Peter Fisher and Humphrey Higgens; edited by Peter Foote; with annotation derived from the commentary by John Granlund, abridged and augmented
alternative title: Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus, Romæ 1555.
London : Hakluyt Society 1996-1998 3 volumes
So what do we have that can sheed light on the important facts told by Olaus Magnus? Let’s look at old edited sources mostly forgotten:
Written in 1250’s as a textbook to educate son of a Norwegian King. We don’t know for sure who wrote it. The book present intersting information re. Greenland. It’s a book where a son asks question and a father answers. Translated into English from OldNorse by Laurence Marcellus 1917. A short quote:
THE PRODUCTS OF GREENLAND
Son. You stated earlier in your talk that no grain grows in that country; therefore I now want to ask you what the people who inhabit the land live on, how large the population is, what sort of food they have, and whether they have accepted Christianity.
Father. The people in that country are few, for only a small part is sufficiently free from ice to be habitable; but the people are all Christians and have churches and priests. If the land lay near to some other country it might be reckoned a third of a bishopric; but the Greenlanders now have their own bishop, as no other arrangement is possible on account of the great distance from other people. You ask what the inhabitants live on in that country since they sow no grain; but men can live on other food than bread. It is reported that the pasturage is good and that there are large and fine farms in Greenland. The farmers raise cattle and sheep in large numbers and make butter and cheese in great quantities. The people subsist chiefly on these foods and on beef; but they also eat the flesh of various kinds of game, such as reindeer, whales, seals, and bears. That is what men live on in that country.”
Thus we know that Greenland and Greenlanders weren’t forgotten and that one knew more than we have been told. But more is to be told….
Source from 1130’s
Nikulás Bergsson/Bergþórsson was a Benedictine monk. He went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land passing Sienna and Rome returning to Iceland in 1154. It’s said that he died between 1158 and 1160. (IEJ: Haven’t been able to confirm whith)
Nicholas Bergthorsson later became abbot of the Icelandic monastery of Thveraa or Munkathvera (1151 — 54). While many historians have had problem relating Nicholas Bergthorsson to Thveraa, neither the Catholic Church nor the Ortodox Church have had that problems. They have him documented as the first abbot of Thveraa. You can find a map of his journey down Europe marked in Fabrizio Nevola, Siena: Constructing the Renaissance City, page 93, Map showing pilgrimage routes to Rom through Sienna, Yale University Press, 2007
In Leidarvisir och borgaskipan written in first half 1100’s One copy was given to the Pope 1134) Nicholas Bergthorsson told us that there was a Sea between Markland and Vinland.
Please note that a Diss was published 2012 dealing with Leidarvisir: Tommaso Marani, Leiðarvísir. Its Genre and Sources, with Particular Reference to the Description of Rome, Diss Durham University 2012
Leidarvisir and borgaskipan:
”… North of Germany is Denmark. Ocean extending into the Baltic Sea, near Denmark. Sweden is east of Denmark and Norway in the north. North of Norway’s Finnmark. … Beyond Greenland, southward, there Helluland and beyond it Markland, from there it is not far to Vinland. which some people think stretching all the way to Africa. England and Scotland is an island but is separate kingdoms. Iceland is a large island to the north of Ireland …. ”
From Biarmaland northward all the way until you reach Greenland. South of Greenland lies Helluland, then Markland , then it is not far to Vinland the Good. Which some believe extends to Africa. and if that’s true, the sea must extend between Vinland and Markland..…
Thus it’s established that in 1100’s Vinland wasn’t forgotten as well as the fact that the Norse Greenlanders travelled around in NA as they had done in Europe. Followed land while sailing further distances than been we have been told.
In his later years Nicholas Bergthorsson wrote an other for religous people very interesting note:
In the year 1157 [IEJ ??? I don’t agree upon the year] the Danish abbot Nicholas Bergthoson described how, at the court of Manul I Comnenus, in the chapel of the imperial palace in Constaniople (Byzantium), two relics from Christ’s tomb were shown to him, not one; a burial cloth and a portrait Source: Paul Badde, The True Icon: From the Shroud of Turin to the Veil of Manoppelio, Ignatius Press, 2012