Norse Vikings predated Columbus exploring North America – Smoking gun part 2 chapter 2

2015/07/21

Norse Vikings predated Columbus exploring North America – Smoking gun part 2 chapter 2
© Johansson Inger E, Gothenburg July 2015

From former chapter:
‘In 1505 I saw two such leaderboats above the Eastern portal in the Oslo Cathedral, sanctified to Saint Halvord, where they were fastened on the wall for everyone to look at. It’s told that King Hakon[IEJ: son of King Magnus Eriksson] acquired them, when he with an armed battle fleet passed Greenland’s coast…’
The source refered to was Olaus Magnus, Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus, De fcorteis, feu coriariiis nauibus Gruntlandiæ, Cap. IX which you also could find the Latin text for at Olaus Magnus De fcorteis, feu coriariiis nauibus Gruntlandiæ, Cap. IX

The question you might ask is: Who was King Hakon? and secondly Why did King Hakon send an armed battle fleet passing Greenland’s coast? As you might comprehend that only gives two possible answers on question where he was going: Either he passed Greenland sailing from east, in other word either Iceland or Norway or he sailed from west which directly would have given the final proof of a settlement west of Greenland. The later is unlikely so we have to start by assuming that King Hakon sailed from Europa, either from Norway via Iceland or Orkney Island or direct. (To this I will return with some proofs in later chapter)

Now you might have heard of the days in later Medieval Age when Sweden was a large country. 1340, the year King Hakon was born and up to mid 1360’s Sweden was one of the largest Kingdom ever existing. This was due to King Magnus Eriksson, father of King Hakon and his inheritance of Norway as well as Greenland and dioceses under Gardar See, Greenland westward and over to parts of what now-a-days belongs to Russia in the inner parts of Gulf of Finland.

Greenland in King Magnus Eriksson’s and King Hakon’s days
During the 1300’s many things changed in Greenland. In 1300 AD Greenland had more than 300 farms inhabited. More than 3000 people lived at that time in the Western Settlement, the Middle Settlement and the Eastern Settlement. Same year, 1300 AD there were more than 40 churches in Greenland. Many were only small ”farm-churches” regularly visited by the priest from Herjolfsnes and Gardar. Their mission was to look so the inhabitants had the correct Christian believes and paid the tithes. Four or five monasteries still had monks and/or nuns at this time. One in the northern part of the Western Settlement on the way to Disco Bay, one closer to the mountains and the hot springs and the third more in centre in one of the fjords. The later was from beginning a Minoritian Monastery but were altered to a Birgittiner Monastery from the end of the 14th Century.

From 1319 to 1364, the inhabited farms in Greenland decreased from 300 to 190. Most of the abounded farms belonged to the Western Settlement. A year to be remembered until next chapter is 1347. In that year Western Settlement was abandoned. This is one part of the background information you better keep in mind.

Magnus Eriksson
King Magnus Eriksson was born 1319 AD as a son of the Swedish Duke Erik and the Norwegian Princess Ingeborg Princess Ingeborg was the granddaughter of Norwegian king Haakon. Duke Erik was brother of the Swedish King Birger Magnusson, Duke Valdemar and Eufemia who married the Duke of Mechlenburg and became mother of the Swedish King Albrekt of Mecklenburg.

Among Magnus Eriksson’s ancestors and relatives there are Polish, Danish and Norwegian kings; Law mans in England, Norway and Sweden; Earls in England, Jarls in Sweden and Norway; Bishops in Sweden and Denmark; Grand Dukes of Novgorod and Kiew. On the Law-man’s side of the Folkunga Dynasty to which Magnus Eriksson belonged, our Swedish Saint St Birgitta of Vadstena. All this is part of the story why things happened the way they did. In other word the politician picture of the mid 14th Century was as complicated as it is in our days…

While above might seem a bit a side of story, you will find that this matters later on when we return to King Hakon as well as the later days of King Magnus Eriksson.

Magnus Eriksson married Bianca of Namur in 1335. Their sons was Erik Magnusson and Håkan Magnusson. Queen Bianca was one of Duke Jean of Namurs many daughters. Queen Bianca’s grandfather had tried to save Namur and Flandern, where the Duke own much of the land, together with the English king Edward I(King of England 1272-1307).

After that the French king Charles IV died 1st February 1328 his widow gave birth to a female child who couldn’t inherit the French throne. There was two candidates: Philippe de Valois, Philippe IV’s nephew, and the English king Edward III son to the French princess Isabelle daughter to Philippe IV. Edward had inherited big land in France, his mother Isabelle was by no means a candidate but her son could claim the rights to the throne due to old customs.

The Swedish king Magnus spent much time in Flandern trying to help England due to his Brother-in-law’s close continued connection to the English Royal Family against the French candidate, Philippe de Valois. King Magnus even sent his own men to fight in the so called Hundred-year war on his Brother-in-law’s side. The French pretender Philippe de Valois was as you might remember elected king of France.

1348 AD King Magnus finally acknowledge his relative St Birgitta’s request and the Papal papal letter for Crusades to the ”far most parts of his kingdom” and went to Russia on his first Crusade.(Svenskt Diplomatarium 5911).

The tradition in King Magnus Eriksson’s family of Crusades goes back to Crusades on behalf of the Pope in the Baltic Areas. Involving among other Birger Brosa’s brothers Magnus Minneskold and Earl/Jarl Karl the Deaf. One of Birger Brosa’s daughters married Karl Sverkersson’s son Sverker II. This has a significance when it comes to which monestries that had an advantage of old contacts with Sweden’s and Norwegian Royal Families in Scandinavia as well as on Greenland’s soil. Magnus Minneskold was the father of Birger Jarl (founder of Stockholm), Bishop Bengt of Linköping, Earl/Jarl Filip as well as Ingegerd (mentioned above). Jarl Karl the deaf was the father of Jarl Ulf Fase who is the same Ulf/Olaf/Oleg who in Russian annals and chronicles is referred to as ”the last Varjag to be thrown out from Baltic and Novgorod areas.”

Due to circumstances refered to in King Hakon below as well as to the fact that St Birgitta due to her husband as well as her own due to ancestors was having some claim to inherit the Royal throne in Sweden King Magnus Eriksson and his Queen Bianca, in Sweden called Blanka, was slandered by St Birgitta. While some parts of the story she told might be true, there exist no proofs. One of the stories relates to the fact that King Hakon, who inherited Norway while his father still was the King in power had a brother Erik who died suddenly. One of the stories told was that either King Magnus or his Queen Bianca was behind that. In contemporary sources the death is said to be due to illness. Normal illness.

King Magnus Eriksson had problems with his brother in law in Mechlenburg. You will read about that under King Hakon’s part below. This came to a fight where King Magnus and his son Hakon tried to defeat Albert of Mechlenburg who had taken parts of Sweden. Hakon returned to Norway after his father Magnus Eriksson had been inprisoned. Magnus Eriksson was inprisoned for five years before he finally came to Norway.

King Magnus Eriksson is said to have died 1th December 1374 not far from Haugesund i Norge. According to Visby Chronicle Magnus’s son King Hakon took him to Norway and while on a sea voyage close to ”Lywngholm” near Bergen, King Magnus is said to have jumped over board but been saved taken ashore and died. This hadn’t had any significance for the Norse Greenlander’s North American history hadn’t it been for the fact that it’s in a Scottish contemporary document is mentioned that the former King Magnus of Sweden had been on a ship winddriven from Vineland who had fallen overboard and been brought to a Scottish castle near by earlier same year. To that I will return with documentation in later chapter due to that this might be a possible answer to the question WHEN King Hakon latest could have sailed with an armed war fleet by Greenland.

King Hakon
Hakon VI Magnusson born 1340 was the son of King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden and Queen Blanka born in Namur, Flandern. He was elected King of Norway in 1343 to rule and inherit Norway together with his father King Magnus who ruled until Hakon had grown up. King Hakon ruled by himself from 1355 to his death 1380. Due to circumstances mentioned below he became King of Sweden 1362 – 1364.
When 19 years old Hakon was engaged to Margaretha daughter of Danish King Valdemar. Margaretha was 6 years old. During the year that followed King Magnus and King Valdemar became enemies. This due to the battle round Skane. Skane had been inherited/given to King Magnus mother due to her marriage of Porse. King Magnus bought Skane. Valdemar of Denmark went for Visby (we call it that he ”brandskattade Visby” in July 1361 and the story around all this could fill a full book.

Due to the differences between Danish and Swedish King, King Magnus engaged his son Hakon to a sister of the Count of Holstein. After a ceremony in Holstein the bride to be was to sail to Sweden. While passing Skane where the Archbishop of Denmark still was located in Lund, the Archbishop was pro Valdemar and an enemy of King Magnus, the ship was siezed and she was taken as a prisoner to Denmark where she was inprisoned in a castle and dies some years later. Thus King Valdemar of Denmark was able to arrange a quick wedding in Copenhagen in 1363 between Hakon and his own daughter Margaretha who at that time only was ten years old.

Margaretha was brought to Bohus to be fostred by one of St Birgitta’s daughters until she came to age. She is said to have had a very hard upbringing. When she and Hakon finally became a real pair only one son was born in 1387, Olav.

Summary of background
The lines re. King Magnus Eriksson as well as his son Hakon, written above gives background needed to know in order to understand WHY King Hakon sent a warfleet passing Greenland. In the next chapter you will read about Ivar Bardson/Bardarsson, Paul Knutsson as well as two Popes. Or should I say one Pope who happened to be studying to become a monk together with one of Ivar Bardson’s brothers and a Kardinal who in 1364 is documented in two sources as the collector for the Papal See of tithes from Gardar as well as from Korsnes under Gardar (Korsnes in NA) and one other diocese in NA. The Kardinal later became Pope thus his documents still is saved in the Vatican vaults.

Most of the sources used above derive from:
Danskt Diplomatarium
Desliens mappamundi 1566
Diplomatarium Norwegicum,
Islandske annaler til 1578 Skalhóltann, edited Christiania 1888
Ordericus Vitalis, Historiske besetninger om Normanner og Angelsaxere fra Orderik Vitals kirkehistorie I-III. Edition 1889
Svenskt Diplomatarium

When the text within is of interest to the following chapters and/or part 3 of the blogg article serie, the exakt information for where the information can be found will be given.


Vandalerna och Nordafrikas historia

2015/01/13

VANDALERNA


© Johansson Inger E, utdrag ur den Den gotiska mosaiken, urspr. manuskript 1995/96

Vandalerna invaderade Västeuropa och bosatte sig i Gaul, på 400-talet tillhörigt nutida spanskt område. Den som ledde vandalerna västsydväst genom Europa var Godegisel. Enligt Prokopius som levde på 500-talet hade vandalerna ursprungligen lämnat sitt hemland p.g.a. hungersnöd. Det område som beskrivs som det område till vilket vandalerna kom låg i Östersjöområdets södra delar. Utifrån de f.n. kända och analyserade källorna är det osäkert varifrån vandalerna ursprungligen kom.

GODEGISEL
Vandalerna hade otur med skörden där de slog sig ned. Detta ledde till att kungen Godegisel, troligen i början av 400-talet drog ned med sitt folk genom Europa. På vägen genom Europa slöt franker och alaner (alemaner, allemagner) upp och följde med Godegisel till sydvästra Europa. Väl nere i Spanien härjade vandalerna till dess att Kejsar Honorius slöt ett fredsfördrag med Godegisel. På villkor att Godegisel och hans män lovade att sluta och röva fick de bosätta sig i västra Spanien. Kort därefter avled Kejsar Honorius.

GEISERIC
Godegisels oäkta son Geiseric förde omkring år 429 sina trupper över Gibraltarsund till Afrika. Det finns olika uppgifter om varför Geiseric valde att korsa sundet. Enligt en del källor skall Bonifactius, den romerske militärguvernören i Afrika, ha råkat komma i på kant med den romerske kejsaren. Bonifactius skall enligt uppgift ha bjudit in vandalerna till Afrika för att få hjälp att kvarstå som guvernör. En annan uppgift säger att vandalerna inte visste att fredstraktatet mellan dem och den romerske kejsaren enligt romersk lag skulle förnyas vart trettionde år. Det som därefter hände är en inledning till de återupptagna folkvandringarna som för alltid ändrade Europas gränser.

När Geiseric kommit över till Afrika så delades styrkorna, bestående av både vandaler och alaner, i 1000-mannatrupper. Geiseric gick år 429 e.Kr. även in i Mauretanien och Numidik. Geiserics framfart ledde till att den romerska flottan samlades på Sicilien för att gå till anfall mot vandalernas fästen. Till slut träffade Geiseric träffade ett fredsavtal med kejsar Theodosius som drog bort sin flotta från Sicilien.

THEODORID VÄSTGOTERNAS KUNG
Geiserics sonhustru var dotter till Theodorid västgoternas kung. I ett anfall av misstänksamhet hade Geiseric skurit näsa och öron av sin sonhustru eftersom denna blivit misstänkt för att förgifta Geiseric. Sonhustrun hade därpå skickats hem till sin far. Av rädsla för Theodorids hämnd vädjade Geiseric till hunnernas kung Attila att gå till kamp mot västgoterna i Gaul.
– – – – – – – – Slut på utdraget – – – – –
Några av källorna till texten ovan:
Prokopius, Vandalenkrieg 1:2, sid 7ff
Prokopius 1:5ff
Priscus Text 9
Jordanes, Getica, 35,184 (antas komma från Prissus 20,2)

Om Vandalerna inte korsat Gibraltar år 429 hade norra Afrikas historia troligen sett helt annorlunda ut. Vandalernas område kom utöver Mauritanien och Numidik/Numidien sträcka sig hela vägen österut som Vandalerna rörde sig. De skapade ökade strider med området vi idag kallar Västsahara. Inkluderade Marocko och Libyen under framfarten och vållade speciellt kristna religiösa strider i Numidien. Strider som inte var lösta när araberna på 600-talet under den framväxande muslimska trons utvidgning.


Japans historia

2013/04/17

Japan och Shintoism


Japans äldre historia spelar större roll för framväxten av det Japan vi idag hör talas om. Förvisso går det inte att spåra Shintoismen i äldre skrifter än från ung. 650 e.Kr. Men Shintoismens grunder som i sin skapelseberättelse som traditionellt brukar hänföra sitt ursprung till staden Kojiki år 712 har längre anor än så. Historiker brukar berätta att Shintoismens ritualer i mångt är Buddistiska. Så långt är det riktigt, men både Buddismen, Shintoismen och Shang Jinismen har rötter långt tillbaka i jägarsamhällens naturupplevelser och syn på vad som är rätt och fel. I A potted history of Japan , Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12093 finns en bild på ett cirka 12-15.000 år gammalt kokkärl som inte bara förändrar historikers och arkeologers syn på Japans äldre historia utan även globalt när det gäller förståelsen av jägarsamhällen i äldre tider. Det visar sig där att även jägarsamhällen som vi betraktat som primitiva ingalunda bara stekte över öppen eld eller kokade i kokgropar. Redan för 12-15.000 år sedan kunde man tillverka kokkärl.

Har det något med dagens situation att göra, undrar säkert någon. Ja det har det. För det innebär att teknikhistoria har gått hand i hand med äldre religiösa föreställningsvärldar och uppkomsten av det vi idag ser när det gäller religion. Speciellt då i Japan där ‘shrine’ tänkande ingår som en till viss del oförklarlig bit av Shintoismens grunder. Ursprunget till dessa finns på den kinesiska sidan i Taoism, där Taoismens varit och är den vid sidan om Buddismen och Konfucianismen traditionellt stora filosofin/religionen.

Medan vi i Väst i den religiösa filosofin som med och utan Kristendomen som grund för vår livsstil och tankevärld kommit långt bort från den tankevärld/filosofiska bakgrund som rådde under t.ex. Bronsålder fram till Romarrikets fall, så finns det i Asien ett helt annat förhållningssätt som vuxit fram utifrån att stor del av den tekniska utveckling som skedde långt innan vi i Väst lämnat Högmedeltiden. Det innebär bl.a. att såväl äldre tankevärld/filosofi/religion(-er) levt parallellt med tekniska utvecklingen under såväl Kinesisk förhistorisk tid, vilken för Kinas del är fram till 1200 f.Kr om vi skall räkna nu kvarlevande skriftliga källor. Ytterligare 2000 år bakåt om vi skall räkna med de källor som finns refererade i nu kvarlevande källmaterial.

Det äldre Japanska källmaterialet där Japan är omnämnt som eget land/folk går inte längre tillbaka än 300 e.Kr. Tankevärlden inom Shintoismen har därför en stor del av det äldre Kinesiska filosofiska världens tänkare att tacka för stora delar av Shintoismen. Det som kom att skilja ut var just Skapelseberättelsen som den berättats i Japan samt att landet ‘Wa’, omnämnt i kinesiska skriften Redogörelse för de tre rikena hade ett stort antal furstar och en statsbildning som är okänd för oss men som under 500-700-talet organiserades klanvis (lite grann som skottarna gjorde när de flyttade från Dalreida i Nordirland) och militariserades. Detta tillsammans med att Japan undgick mogulernas härjningar och anektering. (Inom parantes: vilket är en intrikat frågeställning som fram till härom året var ett stort frågetecken för arkeologer innan den stora mongulflottans flertal ankarrester efter det stora invasionsförsöket hittades.) Detta utgjorde med tillägg av avskildheten, försöket att stävja all handel utåt, grund för att shintoismen frodades och växte sig stark som den är än idag.

Shintoismens skapelseberättelse kortfattat

När Japanska öarna skapades kom det kvinnliga och manliga ner till jorden och solguden Amaterasu och solgudinnan Ameterasu Oomikami, från vilken den japanska Kejserliga familjen trots (och fortfarande tros av en del) härstamma från. Båda två skapades av den evige härskaren Kunito Kotachi(närmast motsvarig vår egen Allsmäktige Gud) först kom Izanami, den kvinnliga gudinnan. Sedan kom Izanagi, den manlige guden. Och när det manliga kvinnliga skapades/kom tillsammans i en grotta på de japanska öarna så byggde de upp Japan. Först byggde de ett palats för kejsarfamiljens framtida liv.
Det är inte utifrån västerländskt synsätt lätt att förstå, men Shintoismen är inte lik vår kristna religion utan bygger på folktraditioner och förhållningssätt som tillsammans utgör bakgrunden till Japans agerande under Andra Världskriget. Framväxt ur Shintoismens föreställningsvärld där det synliga templet, kyrkan eller vad vi vill kalla det, inte är något som är det viktigaste utan det osynliga templet ‘shrine’ som vi bär med oss som arv av våra förfäder som vi skall vörda. Att det finns shintotempel har mer att göra med att det på för Shintoismen heliga platser byggts plats att vörda Shintoismens Gudar och Hjältar. Observera att när en shintoism dog för sitt fädernesland, så troddes han förena sig med Hjältar och Gudar på en av de heliga platserna. Jämför gärna med Asa-tron.

Dagens Japan

Medan upp till 90 % av dagens Japaner erkänner sig till Shintoismen, är det endast mellan 50-60% av Japanerna som praktiserar Shintoism i sin vardag. Undantaget i samband med bröllop och begravningar samt förhållningssättet, vördnad, till äldre anförvanter. Detta innebär att Japan har lämnat det gamla. Men spåren från Japans aktiva angrepp och övergrepp före samt under Andra Världskriget lever kvar i de Asiatiska grannländernas minne.


Syrien-Turkietkrisen 2012 ur historisk bakgrund

2012/10/06

Följande kommer från Syrien-Turkiet, kris med rötter runt 1000-talet, Norah4you 6 oktober 2012

Egentligen får vi gå tillbaka till innan det Osmanska rikets fall, dvs under Seljuq-turkarnas imperiets början dvs någon gång runt år 985 för att finna bakgrunden till dagens koppling mellan Syrien och Iran (forna Persien). När historien börjar, så levde Seljuq-turkarna norr om Aralsjön bort till norr om Kaspiska Havet. För att göra en mycket lång historia kort, så vandrade Seljuq-turkarna söderut och konverterade till den muslimska tron runt år 1000. När riket som inte ens alla historielärare eller ens historiker känner till speciellt mycket om var som störst omfattade det större delen av nuvarande Turkiet över Persien via stor del av nordvästra Afganistan och Turkmenistan bort till Kirgisien och mindre del av nuvarande Kina. Från norr till söder sträckte sig riket Uzbekistan ner till en lång remsa längs östra Medelhavets kust dvs från Syrien ända ner till de delar som Israel occuperar på Västbanken och Gaza inklusive större delen av det av FN-godkända gränserna för Israel ända ner till Eilat.

I dåvarande Persien kom Seljuq-turkarna som blivit muslimer att mer eller mindre assimileras med de ledande persiska grupperna. De anammade persisk kultur och började tala persiska språket som hemspråk. Samtidigt som Seljuq-turkarna som blivit perser även kom att utgöra anfäderna till nuvarande turkar i Turkiet, så blev historien en annan och det är där vi ser exakt samma uppdelning i inbördes religiösa grupperingar som vi ser i dagens Turkiet-Syrienkonflikt.

Efter Malikshāh I:s död 1092 efterträddes han i Anatolien, även kallat Asia Minor, som i princip utgjordes av den halvö där Turkiet nu finns av Kilij Arslan som grundade sultanatet Rum. I Persien efterträddes han av Mahmud I:e och återigen gör jag en lång historia kort genom att berätta att han efterträddes av sin bror Tutush I:e i det område som motsvarar nuvarande Syrien. Allt som allt var det fyra söner till Malikshāh samt en av hans bröder som fick dela på det stora Seljuq-imperiet. I efterdyningarna av de stora inbördesstrider som inträffade kom de blivande Ottomanerna att växa sig starka.

Det var inte bara familjestrider utan också religiösa skillnader i tolkningen av Islam, som splittrade Seljuq-imperiet. Något som glöms bort i dagens säkerhetsdebatt är att dessa grupper till skillnad från de Seljuq-turkar som hamnade i nuvarande Turkiet under Osmanska rikets tid precis som de Seljuq-turkar som hamnade inom nuvarande Syrien fick andra förutsättningar. I flera av de av Seljuq-turkättlingar existerande områdena fick dessa under Osmanska riket viss ‘självstyre’ i form av emirat som lydde under Osamanska riket. Så icke i större delen av det nuvarande Turkiet.

Samtidigt fanns det en stor folkgrupp som enligt vad språkforskaren och professorn Nikolaj J Marr (död 1934) skall ha hävdat antingen var ursprungsbefolkningen i det som många nu kallar Kurdistan. Åtminstone skall kurderna språkmässigt kunna bevisas ha bott inom Kurdistan minst 1000 år före alla andra inom det ursprungliga kurdiska området, från norr till söder över ett stort antal av östra Medelhavets nuvarande länder från södra Ryssland ner till delar av Syrien och Irak. Jag kan inte gå i god för det. Är inte en språkmänniska…. Kurdernas ursprungliga religion var Zarathustra. Redan på 600-talet, dvs före det Seljuq-turkiska imperiets tids begynnelse började Islam spridas bland kurderna. Idag är cirka 70% muslimer. Finns en del kristna kurder också om än i ringa grad.

För att förstå problematiken i Syrien ännu mer krävs kunskap om de Alawiter, idag i Syriens ledning, som bildades på 850-talet av de som ansåg sig vara faktiska ättlingar till Profeten Muhammed. Eller som jag skrev i en tidigare bloggartikel om Syrienproblematiken.

Alawiterna, de som idag är i Syriens ledning bildades på 850 talet av de som ansåg/anser sig vara faktiska ättlingar till profeten Muhammed efter att den nya muslimska religionens framväxt resulterat i interna maktstrider där sunnimuslimer var de som ‘segrade’ inom nuvarande Syriskt område. (Glöm gamla beteckningar på länder i området. Gränser och namn är något som ofta ändrats i historien). Alawiterna blev behandlade som paria på samma sätt som de kastlösa i Indien. De förföljdes och 1317 resp 1516 utsattes de för ren massaker på liknande sätt som de själva idag långt senare ger igen.

Osmanska Rikets historia och efterdyningarna av dess upplösning i slutet av Andra Världskriget har jag skrivit om i I skuggan av Osmanska Rikets fall, Norah4you 12 april 2012. För att göra en lång historia kort, så fick Frankrike Syrien som protektorat på samma sätt som England fick dåvarande Palestina. Frankrike försökte styra Syrien genom att låta alawiterna som var i minoritet bli de som fick ledningen i armé och statsledning. Alawiterna hade i princip ingen annan möjlighet att få utbildning än att gå med i militären. Vilket många gjorde. Det var där och då 1959 samt vid de alawitiska baathisternas kupp 1966 som dagens skrämmande situation blommade upp
Rötterna till dagens kriser, Norah4you 15 juli 2012

I en av de många säkerhetspolitiska analyser som finns på nätet finns en betydligt förenklad version av den komplicerade historiska bakgrunden:
Första världskriget blev slutet för det ottomanska Osmanska riket. I Sèvresfreden 1920 föreskrev segrarmakterna hur det som fanns kvar av riket skulle styckas upp. Där talades i vaga ordalag om att bilda ett självständigt Armenien och söder därom ett ”självstyrande” Kurdistan.
Men republikanska turkiska nationalister vägrade acceptera fredsvillkoren och återupptog kampen med krigets segrarmakter. Sedan de kört ut alla ockupanter kunde de turkiska nationalisterna under Kemal Atatürk utropa Republiken Turkiet 1923.

I den nya Lausannefreden nämndes inte kurderna. Det vi här kallar turkiska Kurdistan var nu en del av Republiken Turkiet. Men andra kurdiska områden som lytt under det ottomanskaOsmanska riket hade gått förlorade för Turkiet. De hade i stället hamnat under brittiskt respektive franskt mandat. Dessa områden ingår nu i Irak och Syrien.

Republiken Turkiet var tänkt att bli en modern nationalstat enligt den tidens europeiska ideal: ”ett land, ett folk”. Turkiska nationalister mindes med bitterhet hur europeiska makter hade söndrat det ottomanskaOsmanska riket genom att uppmuntra olika minoritetsfolk att bryta sig loss. De var därför avogt inställda till alla grupper i Turkiet som ville ha någon form av särställning. Turkiets invånare uppmanades att erkänna sig som turkar eller lämna landet.
Kurderna/Fördjupning, sakerhetspolitik.se
Den versionen stämmer väl med vad som står i svenska historieböcker….. Men enligt mitt förmenande bör man känna till hela bakgrunden för att få fast mark under fötterna när man diskuterar dagens krutdurk Turkiet-Syrienkonflikten, samt för att kunna förstå varför denna krutdurk inte enbart kan fås att explodera för att Turkiet tillhör Nato och Syrien stöds av Ryssland och Kina. Det senare nog så förståligt om man känner till historien längre tillbaka. För både Ryssland och Kina har delar inom sina länder där Seljuq-turkiska folkgruppers ättlingar utgör orosmoment in i nutiden. För att inte tala om Afganistan…

© Johansson Inger E, Syrien-Turkiet, kris med rötter runt 1000-talet, Göteborg 6 oktober 2012


Fiction or facts, Climate Threat’s readings

2009/05/19

You might be able to sell anything using hugh advertising. Including incorrect temperature data from measurings around the world in older days.
Of course there may be reason to take account of cities growth, such as Stockholm. But it is more important to present facts of exact reading place, biotope situation, temperature observations made over the years than presenting corrected values. Especially without proofs of relevance and evidence that the corrected temperature(-s) have a real scientific value!

Scary 1984-model changes are seen in the Climate Threat debate. As example Stockholm’s weather history. Corrected values presented in the climate threat name as if they readings in question were accurate and the whole truth.
Anything to promote the unproven hypothesis, well hypothesis is too strong word assumption is better, that CO2 has changed as an impact of human activities. This assumption has been used, as it been proved true to prove the extension: that the average temperature on Earth is rising. In Sweden as well as elsewhere.
Please read and notice the low quality in form of the input values underlying used to support the unproven hypothesis:

”Our reconstruction of the winter and spring variations over half a millennium is shown in Figure 1. Measured temperatures from 1860 are corrected due to the artificial heating caused by the city of Stockholm, so that the curve shows the more natural change. ”Forskning och Framsteg, maj 2008 [Forskning och Framsteg is a scientific journal here in Sweden]

Think about the above lines and try to explain the evidence for the correction been made properly in light of biotope situation and the observation spot / spots changing through the years:

Red bars indicate that the years been warmer than average, blue bars colder. The black curve shows more variation in capped 10-årsskalan. Stockholm temperature series have been corrected taking into account that the city has grown, and thus become hotter. This is reproduced in as fair a manner as possible the actual variations in climate. The mean value of 5.75 ° refers to the original, more rural environment. ” http://www.smhi.se/sgn0102/n0205/faktablad_stockholm.pdf

Nice isn’t it? Alike falsification of measured data occurs around the entire globe: Read first start of the blog post ‘Something hinky this way comes ncdc data start diverging from Wattsupwith that.com go down to the signature evanmjones Posts:

”But what is the difference between G, HadCRUT and NCDC? Do they use data from different monitoring stations? Do they have differnt methods of making up their data …. Oops, I mean different methods for analyzing their data? What `s the difference?

I would have thought there is only the need for one group Thursday monitor the worlds surface stations? I `m sure there’s a good reason?

Well, believe it or not, it’s like this: NCDC takes its data and adjust it (much Controversy there). G takes the fully adjusted NCDC data and ”unadjusts it” through some strange algorithm and then applies its own adjustments to the mangled results. Why they do not simply start off with NCDC raw data is a mystery for the ages. ”

So everything in regards to falsified facts been sold and swallowed by politicians and other when climate enthusiasts use circle proofs to present their case, ie unproven assumptions presented as facts to prove that the climate threat is present and, by extension, use the ‘corrected values’ whose correctness not been shown true and certainly without the known fact that the temperatures can vary even in two very closely related sites on the biotope taken into consideration.
Towns closeby? Well in the Stockholm case all considerations of science been forgotten and Uppsala’s temperatures have been used. Stockholm is located at the entrance to Lake Mälaren ie coastal, and Uppsala is located in the hinterland. Then there are all other geological variables whose impact on temperatures the so-called scholars not taken into account. 😉


Facts ABOUT OUR Earth

2009/05/19

Facts ABOUT OUR Earth
Earth’s circumference at the equator is roughly 40 076592 km. But ‘only’ close to 40 009 km if we measure the circumference of the pole to pole. The poles are too flat, for our Earth to be a perfect globe. This is due to centrifugal force, the water cycle, erosion of various kinds, etc. a natural phenomena.

Exercise: If you take a rope and measure half the earth diameter. In other words, If you take 12 756 km divided by 2 and allows 10 km be equal to 1 cm on the rope, you get a rope that is approximately 6 meter and 37.8 cm long. Take your class and the to the school yard, a parking, a lawn, etc, and ask one of the pupils to hold one of the ends while you turn a circle using the rope as’ pass’. The circle you got represents the earth.

To understand the relationships between the earth’s size and our highest mountains and deepest ocean sinks, check in maps to learn the height of Mount Everest. 8 848 meter over sea. On your circle-line Mount Everest corresponds with a bulging of less than 1 cm. Make a mark. Look up Mariner-grave, the world’s deepest point in Earth’s crust. 10 911 meters. In other words, no more than 1 cm INWARD BEND from your circle. You then see what a small part of the earth as we humans have been on or below surface.

More facts
Earth’s tilt, rotation, etc.: The gradient, oblicvitety, varies relative to the Earth’s direction of rotation between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees (do not forget that a circle has 360 degrees) This variation is relatively regular and recurring every 41 000 year. We have currently a decreasing angle.

Our Earth wobbles. In other words, in addition to the Earth’s axis inclination varies over time. The cycle is 41,000 years. As do the axis vary relatively the sun and the second due to the earth just like a gyrate-whirl’s peak ‘shake’ when the speed slow down or increase. This later wobbling of the earth has a cycle of 26,000 years.

Pangea: Once long ago all continents coherent. The only continent we call Pangea. When it was broken up into tectonic plates that moved out of each other while they ‘floated’ in the ultimate layer under the ‘ground’ in our seas. Sometimes they glide over / under one or the other of the plates. Sometimes the tectonic plates collide with other plates. Sometimes they revert from other tectonic plate/-s. That was how our mountain ranges occurred as volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, etc. occurs and occurred. In the case of landslides, there are several other conditions that affect more than the tectonic plate movements. However, these must also be included in all calculations.

Exercise: If you take a book and your friend takes another and you put your opposite one another and keep the books about as high, so happens one of the following phenomenon when you order them against each other:

* They collide and fold the two together

* The collisions and the pressure makes one or the other book move backwards away or only one of the books to be ‘pressed in one end’

* They collide and slide above and below each other.

Note that these ‘effects’ is the same as when tectonic plates float around, gnaw on or collide with each other, as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. For a long period of time, several million years this happened to form our mountains as they are, folds ups land etc. All these facts must be taken into account when calculating the earth’s climate.

also please read


The Natural processes Al Gore forgotten about

2009/05/16

PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Simply put, it is the oxygen we need to breathe that the green plants, the earth’s lungs, produce using CO2 and sunshine. Many more persons than Al Gore seems to have forgotten that there comes major problems when building in places where trees have been growing or chopping down trees and vegetation. whether this chopping is done in virgin forests, the northern hemisphere coniferous and deciduous forests or small trees and shrubs in urban city parks this cause problems. For CO2, only 2% of all that we call air, is what the plants ‘eat’and leave us oxygen and themselves sugar carbon …. Coal is also the energy for the plants.

[I am not very fond of Wikipedia, but I can’t find a proper English text for photsynthesis, thus I had to use the Wikipedia text for the English ref here]:

Phosynthesis English text, Wikipedia
Fotosyntes, svensk text från slu.se

WATER CYCLE
Water, just plain water sang many singer in earlier days. But raining, strinling water is just a little bit of a closed chain circulation of the water’s phases. In principle, we have as much total water on earth today as we had 10,000 years ago or earlier in history of the Earth. Water has many different forms, but whether there is water in a person’s body or water/snow that falls for example on the surface of land or sea; or rain and snow that has fallen on the frozen Arctic or Antarctic surface, there is one thing that all forms of water strive for, to get as fast as possible ‘down’as low as possible.

My deceased father told me sometimes of an experiment they put forward for fun while working on VA Office (Water Supplier’s Office) in Gothenburg during the WWII. They was kidding with a girl. She was told that they all had been instructed to drink a glass of water per hour during evening and thus checking the water quality, keep detailed notes, etc. Late at night she phoned one of the others and said, I must now interrupt the water tests. I sit on the toilet and it runs right through me…

Well water you drink, you sweat out, you urinate and same water is also in your breath. What comes out through the toilet goes to a treatment plant where the ground water, surface water, etc. pass before being cleaned. Depending on what treatment, biological or chemical that is needed, it takes time before the water finally reaches of rivers transporting water to the sea same way as the snow that fell in the mountains or in the Arctic finally ends up in sea. All water reaches the sea, sooner or later in the water cycle.

Water that falls over land is infiltrated into the base, soil or stoneground, it’s all the same but it takes different time for the water to end up in a lake, a stream or river.

When the water end up in lakes, streams rivers and so on. The water goes on trying to find the lowest point, which in most cases, excluding the Dead Sea and some smaller lakes, means that the water finaly will end up in the sea, our Oceans. When the sun heats the sea surface than water vapor and cloud formates filled with water steam. Clouds reaching land, coming in over the country, will be trying to rise above the highest point of land, and release their water molecules during that phase. So, we have the chain/water cycle shown in full.

Total amount of water if we assume that even we humans are largely the same millennium after millennium. Circulating around in water cycle’s phases.

SEA LEVEL
But,some one might say: the sea coast has always been almost the same the last 10,000 years?
NO. That’s not true.

First you can start by looking at the sea and the Baltic Sea on our ‘doorstep’ changed from the Ice Age up to now:
Yoldia Sea, Wikipedia

Explaining this, which is what many fail to understand, is essential:
While land uplift due to melting of the ice, the Baltic Ice Lake was filled and overflow due the amount of icewater. Finally the Baltic Ice Lake was overfilled thus the water ran in extremely high amounts over current Sweden and the Oresund Strait was formed. It was so large amounts of water quickly pouring out into what’s now is called the North Sea, that during those days had a seabed far under today’s water, making it possible for people to walk(!) from Scotland to southern Bohuslän [the district south of Norway along the Swedish coast down to Gothenburg] as well as to Norway and over land to Denmark. On this land, today seabed people lived in settlements was on the places under today’s sealevel where today oil is being drilled in the North Sea.

That large OUTPOURING of water caused tsunami waves in the areas around and drowned parts of Norway, but also thanks to the power and speed of water that arose dduring the outflow reached down through the current English Channel, where people previously had been able to live all way down to the Mediterranean Sea. At the same time or close to, the rivers of northern mainland Europes turned south from the southern part of the Baltic Ice Lakes and the water ended up in the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea via rivers as well as via the English Channe to Gibraltar.

This process that drowned land in many places in Europe as well as in around the Mediterranean Sea, began in 8300 BC. As I previously written in ”Basic Geology for Climate fans”, It ended when Lake Vättern was formed 500 years later at the same time breaking the ‘water’ connection over what’s now Sweden. From that time onwards, it is through the Oresund Strait a large amounts of water flowed out. Very little water circulation in relation to what would be needed has thus caused the Baltic Sea to be what we call broken, partly salt but mostly ‘fresh water’ supplied.

The same process happened over the North American continent. Where scientists have only recently begun to understand the full scale of the Stone and Bronze Age Lakes formed, which in many cases disappeared long before our days.

Please observe that the Sea level only has risen by 51 meters since the last ice age peak. This is due to the effect of landrise.

ARCTIC
If Al Gore had remembered what he learned in school, NO ONE visited the North Pole in the early 1900s. It would take until 1959 before the first serious weather station was built in the Arctic inland. Only then, and then only in places where station(-s) existed the measurement was possible to be done.
But someone might say: the ice-cores then?

Have you already forgotten that all forms of water, liquid and ice and water molecules in air are always will try to get reach/find the lowest points. This is due to the gravitation and the centrifugal force effecting all and everything on Earth.

If you put a stick with GPS in a place in the Arctic, it is precisely the same as when a plane crashed on a Alp peak glacier during WWII and finally came out in the valley below the still existing glacier a few years ago. Glaciers are frosen water acting and behaving altogether like water. In other words a stick will not be in same spot, give same GPS readings over a particularly long time. Iceshield in water it’s not in same places over time at all. Or you could look Nansen’s ship Fram’s Icedrift up in any Encyclopedia.

Please look at this url’s picture 5th page, where ice drifts explained simply:
www.rymdstyrelsen.se/fa_sem_07_13_tomasjansson.ppt 
 (a Power point presentation from the Swedish National Space Board’s homepage.)

Thus when this year’s rain and snow falls in the Arctic on ground in one place and you put a stick down, While the stick remain in ice next year it will not be in same longitud, latitude locatin next year far less 1000 years from now or 1000 years before you placed the stick down. When you drill straight down in order to take a icecore, you get data from many places in the Arctic circle in earlier days. That’s due to wind and water erosion, dry freeze, gravitation, centrifugal force etc. The erosion in Arctic tends not to be identical throughout the Arctic. So hardly any correct/fair readings could have given from an Ice Core as a reliable indication of how the weather was for example 1000 years ago. The only thing that can be dated is the stoft from vulcanic eruptions. But that doesn’t say where your ice-core example was located in the Arctic water when the eruption happened. You would have had to take samples each 800-meter from one side of the Arctic to the other…

But there is more to be told to the so-called scholars that the UN and the IPCC refers to and Al Gore gave voice for. For it is much more that they managed to miss the basic courses that they should be gone before they spoke a single millimeters outside their own area and then let politicians TWIST his figures.

Please look at these urls as well:

Archimedes Principle
Basic knowledge for a climate scientist