There have been so many misunderstandings from scientists and others in terms of what actually did happen during the last ice age in Scandinavia, as well as what caused land rise / landslides / landsinking etc. so I think it is high time that the various processes that are relevant to the effects of the last ice age in Scandinavia are presented in a
© Inger Johansson, land uplift, Feasibility study of manuscripts in 1995, rev. 2000th
At the peak of the last ice age ice sheet reached its maximum range. Covering the whole Nordic region and and in west also over to the British Isles and southwards into the northern parts of Central Europe. There was an icesheet-arm which stretched down to today’s Berlin covering all of the northern Poland, Baltic countries and Northwest Russia to todays Moscow and eastwards.
Maximum extent of ice cover was reached about 70.000 years BP and the so-called. peak, peak= when everything completely turned around, started 20.000 years ago.
At most the ice sheet over for example todays Ostergotland reached 2500 meters thickness. In other words That made the weight of the ice cover over point pressing the ground, depending on the weight above in various ways. Which is why the land uplift in Sweden, Norway, Finland and northwestern Russia today, and elsewhere, started at different times as the ice above a place melted. But more about that later. For 20.000 years ago, water levels in the oceans 200 meters lower than today.
The landscape changed under the ice sheet as the ice sheet expanded, thickened, melted, etc. That’s why the natural conditions due to water, wind and iserosion that affected our region have given us further, wind, water, frost erosions up to modern age, especially in areas where the change over the millennia due to the impact of wind and temperature, soil erosion, water erosion, eg . landslides, soil drift and earthquakes, etc.
[Note that landslides and earth drift is not the same procedures – one involving clay from sliding down when the limit of clay soil material obtained is sometimes due to excessive rain, the second is due to the soil material is trying to reach the lowest position in the counter poise landscape in recent process of wind and water erosion are two of those who cause the most impact].
Other important facts to remember certain parts of the landscape had thicker ice cover over some parts of the underlying landscape than the others. The partly seasonal ‘effect’ due to the grounds condition and specifics, permited changing from below zero to up to 14 degrees Celsius in areas where the ice had already melted one of the reasons why the ice freezing procedure had a major impact on the landscape in southern Sweden, which led to a ”cracked” the landscape in such Östergötland.
Due to the Scandinavian ancient soils, geological condition after previous ice ages, this meant that the original bedrock remained intact in some areas while in others the rock burst. Was caused by the material transported by meltwater and ice-river (over ice) from one location to other locations in the terrain. Sometimes melt water rivers transported large quantities of large stones over long distances. From the time the ice melted / temporarily withdrew northward from an area where continued transported material, sludge, lerröra, stones from OR, up to large pieces of rock to be broken down, moving forward, etc., as usual.
Approxiamte 20.000 years ago, the Westcoast, (coastal line which corresponds to our today’s Atlantic Ocean), covered present-day’s central parts of Jutland over today’s North Sea to Yorkshire. This meant, that it was possible to walk over land from the Skane in southern Sweden over to and across Denmark to mid/southern England. [Remember that when the water level was 200 meters below], but it was not possible to move eastward from central Smaland, because the Baltic Sea total meltwater from virtually the entire current Nordic, Baltic and northern Russia.
20.000 years ago, the ice sheet over northern parts of Ostergotland was less than 1800 meters, compare with the ice sheet over for example Uppland at same time 3,500 meters thick. This is the reason for the simple fact that the province of Östergötland longer have been above sea level than Uppland and to uplift not only started earlier in Ostergotland than in Upland, but also to the uplift, which is a slow-down movement in ground, started earlier in the south and later north. Please note that the uplift/landrise is a decreasing movement.
10.500 years ago, present Baltic Sea, then an Ice Age-inner Sea reached its maximum volume as well as, in most cases not all, the highest points in the terrain. At that time, Ice Coat had retreated to a line north of Skara / Mariestad – Nyköping – St.Petersburg and sea levels from the Atlantic side still reached Billingen Mountain’s northern cliffs.
At the time, water from the Baltic Ice Sea broke over land westward creating what we today call ”Sveaälvl” All in all this meant that the water levels in the Baltic Isjön over rapidly in 500 years. The fastest quickest drop of 26 meters happend during a short period, a few years, around 7.800 BC. The impact of the waterloss was that the former inner-sea was cut off from the Atlantic seaside. Ancylus Lake is the name of the ‘new’ large lake/innersea east of Scandinavia. Waterfall over Svea Fall had drained due to land elevation/uplift/landrise and water levels in Lake Ancylus over time caused / resulted in / create a new outflow of water in today’s Öregrund and the Danish Belt approximate exact 8500 before our time. This happened almost all in once during a very short period, no / few years, a major influence by sea level rose rapidly by about 151 meters and the rivers turned from being the northbound to basically become sydrinnande throughout Central Europe and the Baltics as well as made all of today’s North Sea’s ground becoming sea-botton and creating the English Channel.
Above two high sea levels and SILTRATION / mud on the ocean floor makes it easy to find the highest shoreline (HK in Swedish charts, the highest coastline). Please note that all HK marked on the map is not necessarily the exact same time, or rather only a part is from the exact same time.
8500 BP is a long road back, but at that time the first known settlers had reached Scandinavia from south. Not only seasonal wanderer/hunters or fishermen. 9000 BC (= 11000 BP) there were men / woman who seasonally had stady settlings in in Danderyd, Mjölby, (Ostergotland) At that time the Baltic Ice Age/early Ancylus lake hade a retreated coastline east of Mjölby-Kalmar, Kristianstad over to sea’s/lake’s east side close to todays St. Petersburg and Riga. The Svea Fall huge water-fall, dry of course, can be seen today in a valley near today’s Degerfors on the border between Västerås and Narke. Increasing temperature allowed the fox, arctic fox, weasel, ermine, and polar bears to wander in from southwest and settle in the countryside. The sea and rivers have fish found good conditions.
This is the time in history when something else happened causing a huge difference in landscape. At the same time as when the northern coast almost exactly followed the guidelines for today Roxen Lake(Ostergotland) up to Laxå – Karlskoga and Degerfors (where contact of the Vänern as spin-offs from the current Atlantic side still existed). North and east of the line, ie. North and East of Östergötland, Sörmland, Uppland and Västmanland had contact with the Yoldia Sea coast (like the sea after the Baltic Ice Lake is called). While it is important to remember that in today’s Motala low water when the water 4 meters below present levels and that the water level at Jönköping in the south lake was more than 43 meters below present levels. One of the best examples of how the uplift occurred, and that Sweden is tipped towards the south due to the areas that first became free of ice started to get up early and that ‘security’ stalled ever since.
It is now that the Scandinavian flora and fauna changed drastically. Oak and elm are moving to and spreading northward in Scandinavia to be and a giant deer [Plinus later mentioned this, but until recently it was believed never to have existed here in Scandinavia were found last year deep in the ground during the excavation], moose, hare and beaver move into the countryside.
Around 5700 BC the water level ‘decreased’ due to uplift and the Ancyllus lake needed to seek new ways. In cracked ground of landscape east of the lake Vaettern formed today Motala Stream. The period 9000 BC-2000 BC is the period we call the Stone Age. About 4500 BC low water level in Kolmården area 45 meters above today’s Baltic Sea water. While low water levels in Tjust (Teuste, Tiust) Southeast Osergotland reached 35 meter above today’s level. Later central parts in todays Ostergotland completely reached above the water during the older Stone Age. This is important to know, like that the warmer climate than we’ve seen in modern age gave way for bison and aurochs while grapes grew in the current Sörmland.
Here, there a map will from my C-level History essay Waterways toward Lake Roxen in earlier ages will be seen.
It is now fair settlements beginning in the Östergötland region. It can be seen not least in all the flint tools and rejection found in excavations. Since there is no flint area of Östergötland, the nearest is in Scania and on the other side Ancylussjön away in the Baltics, you MUST flint have been transported here. Hardly hand in hand at short distances because current Småland highlands was virtually impassable from south to north. But be accessible from the west and east. Contemporary autostrada was Ancylussjön and watercourses. On the map, they show up ‘pathways’ into the Roxen that existed from Gamleby Söderköping in the south to the north. ‘Road’ to b a r a waterway was.
It is important to note that all major discoveries and settlements from the Stone Age, just as the later period of time until the Vikings are within a range of 800 meters from the respective age most suitable waterways.
From the middle of the Stone Age onwards, in other words, the layer dated to 4500 BC-2000 BC Many artifacts such as ceramics. The earliest pottery is not made locally, the clay that is displayed on the origin of southeastern Europe. Later pottery from this period are made using local clay materials and is the same as in the eastern part of Europe. From this period, over 10 settlements are known in Tjust (Teuste) and several of Tjusts immediate vicinity.
As shown above, and the map of the waterways were important transportation routes in ancient times. Most of the flint artefacts, apart from the green stone axes from the early Stone Age Early Bronze Age, has been in Östergötland over water. There are no roads in the nature trails, yes, but none that are possible to travel along with the fragile items from such Scania until much later in history. Apart from that only a few ancient castles built in the 800s, but to protect a waterway, which leads to today’s Baltic Sea is the stark indication that we need to see ancient long-distance trade through the water not only as a possible but a likely possibility.
Transportation of goods across the water from the stone age on long distances, can certainly be proved, because there was no land bridge to Sweden from the continent and / or Denmark longer existed at the time the oldest pottery dates back to. Type of pottery which was then used in continental Europe. Some of the artifacts, such as similar pottery was found along the Baltic Sea, in Poland, Hungary, etc. C-14 dating from that point to the same period in Sweden as in other parts of Europe.
It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that ‘Swedes’ from the Stone Age took over the water in boats or rafts, etc. This means that they could actually sail, row or drifted by currents over open water. Thus we have conclusive evidence that people in the European Stone Age, at least from the Stone Age idkade trade and or had close contact across the present Baltic Sea south and east.
Inger E Johansson
© Inger Johansson, Country Rise manuscript 1995, rev. 2000 All Rights Reserved.
Asklund Brother, Östergötland geological history, from the Nature of Östergötland, Gothenburg 1949, page 30
Cnattingius, Bengt, Östergötland fornliv, article was published in Sweden’s building Countryside Statistical description of Swedish towns and rural areas, Östergötland County, Part 1, Stockholm 1947 p. 30ff
Danielsson, Hilda, Östgöta during ancient times, from Östergötland, Stockholm 1937 p. 126-127
Inger Johansson, the sea toward the Roxen In older times, C-level, thematic history of the Department, Linköping University 1993rd
Lennart Klang, Kronoberg Kalmar County, from The arkelogen Sweden around Stockholm 1987, page 152f
Preservation program for the Municipality of Västervik, Västervik 1986, p. 116-134
Anders Lindahl, Human beings come into Östergötland, Östergötland from a reader on the homeland, Uddevalla 1958 page 33-35
County Administrative Board in Östergötland, Cultural Natural Environments in Östergötland, Linköping, 1986, p. 108ff
Olaf Moller, The ancient Tjust from Västervik urban history, Kalmar 1983, p. 21ff
Rönnby John, ”Old Västervik” Viking farm to medieval city, Stockolm 1986 Page 11