Theories of Science

© Inger E Johansson Göteborg 1999

Information: transmited information may be true or false, and can be presented in one or more contexts with the help of various clauses that express ideas, claims and / or opinions.

Semantics splits information in Language, Thoughts and Reality. Where the language expresses ideas that thoughts have arrived at providing information to understand/wish to understand what reality show.

Language: putting words to thoughts thought and reality observed.

Thoughts: The way each person from observed events, situations, presentation of facts/data/beliefs formulate for him/herself using his/her own experience to absorbe/analyse the surrounding events on micro or macro level, in order to pass the thoughts on to others. On macro level a thought is the claim needing a whole concept of micro-level thoughts from which the person drawn a subjective conclusion from his/her own experience.

Reality: Reality is always subjectively observed situation, situations, event etc.
Claims: One or more rates go out to convey a knowledge / observations etc, where rates on micro level consists of a number of concepts.

Hypothesis: Are subjectively formed thoughts presented in words using language to present the thoughts and subjective interpretation of reality to filter thoughst. A hypothesis never ever is equal to objectively presented facts!

Facts are objectively observed readings or situation. Never ever manipulated readings or corrected! The minuit rawdata from objectively observed readings or situation is manipulated or ‘corrected’ the new data can’t be called facts but hypothesis from subjective thoughts regarding the rawdata!

Opinion: One or more claims made in speech, writing or pictures. A view is always subjective and dependent on the wording issue underlying the expression of views. On the macro level, this is called a formula. On the micro level, there are underlying terms.

Terms: Terms in science are always related to the premisses needed to be true for any given hypothesis/theory to lead up to a sustainable conclusion.

In other words: If the premisses needed to support a hypothesis/theory can’t be proven to be true, the hypothesis falls no matter what!

If we now move forward, we must first make clear any significant distiktioner: semantics consists of three levels: language, idea (content) and the reality around them. In theory begreppslärans design our textbooks called for ”Babylon, Athens and Rome.”

Whether a thought if written, spoken or underlying, is passed on, it is in itself carries no linguistic specific value. In order to formulate a claim in view ”the world”, we use the language formulations (formulation options). A formulation consisting of a number of concepts which do not themselves consist of letters without a number of conceptual features. Facts don’t ask who presents them.

The word claim/claims presented by someone or a group of people corresponds to one / several observations/ rawdata facts of reality, whether that reality is real or imaginary is an other question.

Specifically, this is an explanation for the language that exists between the different disciplines in science. A single term (micro level of the linguistic formulation) may respond to one or to several different concepts (micro level of thought content) in view ”the world” but at the same time, or several things / properties / processes etc, in reality (real or imaginary).

This means that we can have the following conditions:

a) A term, but several concepts relating to the same thing

b) a term, but several concepts that are sometimes (often) relate to the same thing

c) a term, but several concepts that only in exceptional cases, the same thing

d) A term, but several concepts that never refers to the same thing.

To return to the original discussion on information and facts, information is an expression of a concept with many different terms needed to be proven true or false. During the seventies, for example, tried sociology to solve this by studying individual concepts from three different power technologies: Morgonthau’s terms, in Sorokin’s terms, Etzioni’s terms. In recent years I have not in any case in textbooks that I used in teaching and or studies found that it goes so far in the study of individual concepts. For that reason are not in itself very important ”analysis” in the following section.

More about FACT: the plural of fact. A linguistic term that refers to observable concept in view ”the world” which corresponds to a district / a feature / process etc in the real world. The observable concepts presented as facts can be repeated only in reality, but need not be repeated only (eg a process or event that is only possible on a specific set of assumptions that are rarely or never is possible to recreate). A fact, several facts are in all cases of linguistic micro level is a term that is matched by the whole ”formulation” and refers to the observable concepts. Based on this definition, the facts always true.

For other uses of the concept of facts can be ignored definition of a / several people mistakenly call the terms set out without any real world to present the facts. This does not mean that facts can be false but that the term facts used on other / other terms than those matched by the district / property / process / event, etc. in the real world. If this distinction is not clear distinction is made for a student, there will, unfortunately, often to confusion with the concept of information which causes troubles.

© Inger E Johansson Göteborg 1999 Revised June 2009


2 Responses to Theories of Science

  1. rtyecript skriver:

    I really liked the article, and the very cool blog


  2. Grace skriver:

    Major thanks for the article post. Will read on…



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